Bone Descriptions

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Rib Cartilage, : Bars of hyaline cartilage which continues the ribs. Those of sternal ribs articulate with the sternum, while those of asternal (floating) ribs overlap and areattached to each other by elastic tissue to form the costal arch.

Costae : Thirteen elongated, curved bones arranged serially in pairs orginating from the thoracic vertebra. The first eight fuse to the sternum on the ventral side of the animal and five are asternal.

Round Bone, Leg Bone : The largest and most massive bone of the long bones; shaft is cylindrical but flattened behind, and larger above and below. Proximal extremity is large and consists of the head, neck, and trochanter major; distal end is large both directions and comprises the trochlea in front and two condyles behind.

Rear Leg Bone, Hind Shank, Hock bone : Usually consists of two extremities only; head is fused with the lateral condyle of the tibia and continued by a blunt-pointed prolongation below.

Arm bone, Clod bone : A long bone which extends from the shoulder. It consists of a shaft and two extremities. The proximal extremity consists of the head, neck and two tuberosities and the intertuberal groove. The distal extremity has an oblique surface for articulation with the radius and ulna which consists of two condyles of very unequal size, separated by a ridge.

Pelvic bone, Hip bone, Pin bone : The largest and most anterior of the three parts of the pelvic girdle; is irregularly triangular and presents two surfaces, three borders, and two angles.

Aitch bone : Body of shaft of ischium irregularly quadrilateral; can be described as having two surfaces, four borders, and four angles.

Back strap : A powerful elastic apparatus whose principle function is to assist the extensor muscles of the head and neck, extending from the occipital bone to the spinous processes of the thoracic vertebrae.

Knee cap : A large sesamoid bone intercalated in the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle; free surface is strongly convex, rough and irregular. Articular surface is convex from side to side and nearly straight vertically.

Foreshank bone : A long bone; larger of the two bones of the forearm; gently curved, the convexity being drosal. Consists of a shaft and two extremities.

Shoulder blade, blade bone, paddle bone : Flat bone with the surface divided into two fossae by the spine of the scapula which extends from the vertebrae to the neck, where it subsides. The two fossae are the supraspinous fossa and the infraspinous fossa. The former is the smaller of the two, is smooth and is occupied by the supraspionous fossa.

Feather bones : Resembles the spinous processes of the thoracic vertebrae, however their width diminishes in the last three vertebrae.

Breast bone : A median segmental bone. It consists of six to eight bony segments (sternebrae) connected by intervening cartilage in the young animal.

Rear Leg Bone, Hind Shank, Hock bone. : A long bone possessing a distinctly curved shaft, the medial side being convex, and two extremities, which are in close contact with the fibula.

Back bone, loin : Elongated plates that, flattened dorso-ventrally, project outward and may incline slightly upward or downward; their length increases to the third or fourth and then diminishes to the last.

Rib vertebrae : A short, thick process that extends horizontally from the main body of the vertebrae and is tuberous at the free end. Each has a facet (Foveatransversaria) for articulation with the tubercule of the rib.

Hock, Point of Hock : The enlarged, proximal end of the tarsal bone forms the tuber calcis or "point of the hock". The posterior part of this eminence gives attachment to the tendon of the gastrocnemius, while in front and on each side it furnishes insertions to tendons of the superficial digital flexor, biceps, and semitendinous muscles.

Hip Bone (hooks) : The tuber coxae forms the basis of the point of the hip. It is large quadrangular mass, narrow in the middle, and large at either end, where it bears a pair of tubersities.

Foreshank bone : A long bone in which the shaft (Corpua ulnae) is three sided and tapers to a point distally. It is fused with radius in the adult except at the proximal and distal interosseous space.

Neck Vertabrae : Irregularly shaped

Tail Bones : Irregular shaped

Loin or Lower Back Vertabrae : Irregularly shaped

Sacrum : Irregularly shaped

Rib Vertabrae, Feather bones, chine : Irregularly shaped

Cannon bone : Long Bones

Hock Joint : Short cubical bones of various size.

Cannon bone : A long bone that is distinctly four sided.

Pelvis, Pelvic Girdle : The pelvic girdle comprised of the illium, ishium, and pubis. This is the largest of the the flat bones.

Feather bone : A single spine that projects dorsally from the middle of the arch vertabrae. It varies greatly in form, size, and direction from different vertabrae. It furnishes attachments to muscles and ligaments.