Bone Descriptions

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Acetabulum : It is a cotyloid cavity in the pelvic bone which lodges the head of the femur.

Costal Cartilage : Bars of hyaline cartilage which continues the ribs. Those of sternal ribs articulate with the sternum, while those of asternal (floating) ribs overlap and areattached to each other by elastic tissue to form the costal arch.

Ribs : Thirteen elongated, curved bones arranged serially in pairs orginating from the thoracic vertebra. The first eight fuse to the sternum on the ventral side of the animal and five are asternal.

Femur : The largest and most massive bone of the long bones; shaft is cylindrical but flattened behind, and larger above and below. Proximal extremity is large and consists of the head, neck, and trochanter major; distal end is large both directions and comprises the trochlea in front and two condyles behind.

Fibula : Usually consists of two extremities only; head is fused with the lateral condyle of the tibia and continued by a blunt-pointed prolongation below.

Humerus : A long bone which extends from the shoulder. It consists of a shaft and two extremities. The proximal extremity consists of the head, neck and two tuberosities and the intertuberal groove. The distal extremity has an oblique surface for articulation with the radius and ulna which consists of two condyles of very unequal size, separated by a ridge.

Illium : The largest and most anterior of the three parts of the pelvic girdle; is irregularly triangular and presents two surfaces, three borders, and two angles.

Ischium : Body of shaft of ischium irregularly quadrilateral; can be described as having two surfaces, four borders, and four angles.

Ligamentum Nuchae : A powerful elastic apparatus whose principle function is to assist the extensor muscles of the head and neck, extending from the occipital bone to the spinous processes of the thoracic vertebrae.

Patella : A large sesamoid bone intercalated in the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle; free surface is strongly convex, rough and irregular. Articular surface is convex from side to side and nearly straight vertically.

Pubis : The smallest of the three parts of the pelvic girdle. It has two surfaces, three borders, and three angles. The pubis may be regarded as consisting of as body (Corpus ossis pubis) and two branches, the acetabular branch (Ramus acetabularis) and the symphyseal branch (Ramus symphyseous).

Radius : A long bone; larger of the two bones of the forearm; gently curved, the convexity being drosal. Consists of a shaft and two extremities.

Scapula : Flat bone with the surface divided into two fossae by the spine of the scapula which extends from the vertebrae to the neck, where it subsides. The two fossae are the supraspinous fossa and the infraspinous fossa. The former is the smaller of the two, is smooth and is occupied by the supraspionous fossa.

Spinous Process (Lumbar Vertebrae) : Resembles the spinous processes of the thoracic vertebrae, however their width diminishes in the last three vertebrae.

Spinous Process (Thoracic Vertebrae) : A large narrow process that extends vertically from the main body of the vertebrae. The free end is tuberus and in younger animals is composed of cartilage.

Sternum : A median segmental bone. It consists of six to eight bony segments (sternebrae) connected by intervening cartilage in the young animal.

Tibia : A long bone possessing a distinctly curved shaft, the medial side being convex, and two extremities, which are in close contact with the fibula.

Transverse Process (Lumbar Vertebrae) : Elongated plates that, flattened dorso-ventrally, project outward and may incline slightly upward or downward; their length increases to the third or fourth and then diminishes to the last.

Transverse Process (Thoracic Vertebrae) : A short, thick process that extends horizontally from the main body of the vertebrae and is tuberous at the free end. Each has a facet (Foveatransversaria) for articulation with the tubercule of the rib.

Tuber Calcis : The enlarged, proximal end of the tarsal bone forms the tuber calcis or "point of the hock". The posterior part of this eminence gives attachment to the tendon of the gastrocnemius, while in front and on each side it furnishes insertions to tendons of the superficial digital flexor, biceps, and semitendinous muscles.

Tuber Coxae : The tuber coxae forms the basis of the point of the hip. It is large quadrangular mass, narrow in the middle, and large at either end, where it bears a pair of tubersities.

Ulna : A long bone in which the shaft (Corpua ulnae) is three sided and tapers to a point distally. It is fused with radius in the adult except at the proximal and distal interosseous space.

Vertebrae, Cervical : Irregularly shaped

Vertebrae, Coccygeal : Irregular shaped

Vertebrae, Lumbar : Irregularly shaped

Vertebrae, Sacral : Irregularly shaped

Vertebrae, Thoracic : Irregularly shaped

Carpal Bones : The carpal skeleton in found in the fore limb and consists of six which is arranged in two rows proximal or antibrachial and distal or metacarpal. The proximal row consists of four bones which are the radial, intermediate, ulnar and accessory. In the distal row the first carpal is absent, the second and third are fused and forth is separate.

Metacarpal Bones : Long Bones

Tarsal Bone : Short cubical bones of various size.

Metatarsal Bone : A long bone that is distinctly four sided.

Os Coxae : The pelvic girdle comprised of the illium, ishium, and pubis. This is the largest of the the flat bones.

Olecranon : The proximal extremity of the ulna.

Spinous Process : A single spine that projects dorsally from the middle of the arch vertabrae. It varies greatly in form, size, and direction from different vertabrae. It furnishes attachments to muscles and ligaments.

Transverse Process : Two process that project laterally from the sides of the arch of the vertabrae or from the junction of the arch and body of the vertabrae. In the cervical region the transverse processes of the third through sixth cervical vertabrae present a cranial and caudal portion. The former is referred to as the costal process which homologous of the rib in the thoracic region.